By Albert R. Wildt
This e-book offers a strategy for examining the consequences of variables, teams, and coverings in either experimental and observational settings. It considers not just the most results of 1 variable upon one other, but in addition the consequences of crew situations.
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Extra resources for Analysis of Covariance (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences)
In given instances the appropriate form of the adjustment is determined from prior knowledge about the relationship between the dependent variable and the covariate. However, in a large number of applications no strong evidence exists to indicate the form of the adjustment, in these cases the adjustment is usually assumed to amount to some scalar multiple of the covariate. Although the form of the adjustment need not be linear, only the linear case will be considered here. Furthermore, only one covariate will be considered in the following discussion.
Also, IQ scores of the students in the classes were obtained. In this case, the posttest score was the dependent variable, type of instruction was the independent categorical variable of primary concern, and the two other independent variables, pretest and IQ scores, were employed as covariates. This particular instance illustrates the use of analysis of covariance in an effort to remove bias which would result because the intact groups were not matched on some relevant variable. Application Four: American Occupational Structure Blau and Duncan (1967), in their study American Occupational Structure, illustrate the use of analysis of covariance in the context of an observational study.
By inclusion of the covariates, the researcher can adjust for those behavioral differences attributable to subject characteristics. This reduces the variability of response within levels of the experimental variable, and therefore, achieves a more accurate experiment. Application Three: Comparison of Alternate Teaching Methods Some experimental studies employ existing (intact) groups which may differ in some important respects. In many instances intact groups offer a more practical approach to a given problem.
Analysis of Covariance (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences) by Albert R. Wildt