By Albert J. Bredenoord, André Smout, Jan Tack
This ebook describes the explanations and scientific administration of useful gastrointestinal issues in a quite simply comprehensible means, due to many transparent illustrations. The concrete and sensible suggestion supplied could be such a lot invaluable within the medical perform of either the overall practitioner and the scientific expert. useful issues of the gastrointestinal tract, corresponding to gastroesophageal reflux illness, sensible dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome, are quite common and persistent stipulations. regardless of the hot ebook of many clinical papers on their analysis and therapy, a lot continues to be doubtful, and administration remains to be thought of difficult. This practice-oriented publication may be a great resource of trustworthy updated assistance for all who deal with those patients.
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Additional info for A Guide to Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders
From there, motor neurons of the cranial nerves are activated that control the muscles of pharynx and upper esophagus (glossopharyngeal, vagal, and hypoglossal nerves) and the motor neurons of the vagus nerve that control the middle and distal esophagus. J. 1007/978-3-319-26938-2_4 39 4 40 The Esophagus Fig. 1 Schematic display of the anatomy of the esophagus (Published with kind permission of © Rogier Trompert Medical Art 2015) Pharynx Upper esophageal sphincter Esophageal body Lower esophageal sphincter Diaphragm Z-line Stomach A swallow can be divided into three phases, which are the oral phase, the pharyngeal phase, and the esophageal phase.
3 Barostat Technique The barostat is a specialized technique that was designed to measure tone in various parts of the gastrointestinal canal, in particular the proximal stomach and the colon. An air-filled bag made out of polyethylene is placed in the lumen. A dedicated air pump connected to the bag keeps the pressure in the bag constant. When the tone of the gut wall increases, the barostat pump sucks out air, to keep the pressure constant. Likewise, when the tone decreases, air is pumped into the bag (Fig.
The use of this class of agents induces direct stimulation of smooth muscle contractility, but this occurs in a non-organ-specific fashion, usually involving the whole gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, this approach often generates poorly coordinated contractions (which lacks proper coordination of contractile and relaxant activities, as in the peristaltic reflex). Finally, this type of approach often also stimulates acetylcholine receptors outside of the gastrointestinal tract, including receptors on ocular musculature, salivary glands, and sweat glands.
A Guide to Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders by Albert J. Bredenoord, André Smout, Jan Tack